Pascal’s Spineless Wager

Pascal’s Wager is an argument in apologetic philosophy devised by the seventeenth-century French philosopher, mathematician and physicist Blaise Pascal. It posits that humans all bet with their lives either that God exists or that he does not. Pascal argues that a rational person should live as though God exists and seek to believe in God. If God does actually exist, such a person will have only a finite loss (some pleasures, luxury, etc.), whereas they stand to receive infinite gains (as represented by eternity in Heaven) and avoid infinite losses (eternity in Hell).


Hedging one’s bets in such a cowardly way is one way to waste one’s life.

15 Evolutionary Gems

Here is a resource from Nature for those wishing to spread awareness of evidence for evolution by natural selection.


Most biologists take for granted the idea that all life evolved by natural selection over billions of years. They get on with researching and teaching in disciplines that rest squarely on that foundation, secure in the knowledge that natural selection is a fact, in the same way that the Earth orbits the Sun is a fact.


Given that the concepts and realities of Darwinian evolution are still challenged, albeit rarely by biologists, a succinct briefing on why evolution by natural selection is an empirically validated principle is useful for people to have to hand. Offered here are 15 examples published by Nature in recent years to illustrate the breadth, depth and power of evolutionary thinking. They are happy to offer this resource freely and encourage its free dissemination


15 Evolutionary Gems Free PDF